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    References
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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Advanced Powder Technology
    Original Research Paper
    Biogenic silver embedded magnesium oxide nanoparticles induce the cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cells
    Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Myeong-Hyeon Wang ⇑ Department of Medical Biotechnology, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea
    Article history:
    Keywords:
    Cancer
    Silver
    Magnesium oxide
    Cytotoxicity 
    This work reports the synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of biogenic magnesium oxide nanopar-ticles (MgONPs) and nanosilver embedded magnesium oxide nanoparticles (Ag-MgONPs). The formation of nanoparticles (NPs) was conÞrmed by the indications of color changes and precipitations. Field emis-sion scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) pattern studies showed the agglomeration colloids, porous, spherical, needle-shaped and crystal nature of MgONPs, whereas, the Ag-MgONPs was hexagonal, and spherical structured nanocrys-tals. Energy-dispersive X-ray ßuorescence spectrometry (EDS) study indicated the existence of Ag, Mg, and O in NPs complex. The particle size analysis (PSA) revealed the mean size of 15.09 nm for Ag-MgONPs and 13.68 nm for MgONPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the peaks corresponding to amide, carboxylic acids, aromatics, alkene and esters from mycelial cell-free extract (MCFE). The absorbed and lattices oxygen of MgO was probably assigned in the formation of Ag-MgONPs as indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Cytotoxicity assay showed the Ag-MgONPs was stronger in inducing the prostate cancer (PC-3) cell death than the MgONPs. This work con-cluded that Ag-MgONPs could be potential therapeutics for cancer therapy.
    2019 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. All rights reserved.
    1. Introduction
    Globally cancer is one of the recognized hazards to human life. The scientists are eagerly developing the various therapeutic agents and precursors to cure cancer incidents [1]. Among the ther-apeutics, NPs based cancer therapy is more successful because of their ability in targeting the cancer cells and low toxicity [2]. Human prostate cancer is the development of malignancy in the prostate, which is a complex heterogeneous disease in man [1,3]. According to American cancer society reports about 180,000 of prostate cancer incidents are detected in the United States during 2016 [1]. Of course, there are several physical or chemotherapeutic approaches are existed to treat cancer, but these techniques trigger the side effects such as pain, skin erythema, atrophy and inducing cytotoxicity to normal cells. Although the NPs/microparticles in inhalation are causing the deposition in human airways [4Ð6]. The proper application of the NPs based cancer drug or drug deliv-ery system can extensively target the cancer cells and induce the ablation via enhanced permissibility and retention (EPR) without damaging the normal cells [7Ð9]. Biogenic NPs are reported as an